Q:What is Blockchain ?
The blockchain is a technology where the traditional client-server system is fully
changed to a decentralized peer to peer system. Where the data and transactions
are stored in a shared ledger in an encrypted format. A blockchain is a collection
of linked records growing continuously and the copy of all the records will be stored
in all the nodes in the network. for more details:
What is Blockchain Technology
Q:How does the blockchain works ?
A blockchain is a collection of blocks where each block will record the transactions
in the network. Without the support of a centralized server, the entire blockchain
can manage a business use case with the help of a distributed shared ledger.
What is Blockchain Technology
Q:What is blockchain mining ?
The blockchain mining is used for the validation of transactions taken place in
a blockchain network. The actual process in mining is the permanent recording of
transactions to the distributed ledger of the particular blockchain. Once the transaction
is validated by miners with the help of a validation algorithm it is recorded in
the ledger and copied to all the nodes in the blockchain. For more details:- Hashing technology in blockchain
Q:What is distributed ledger technology
A distributed ledger is a shared digital data stored in all the nodes of a blockchain.
All the transactions in the blockchain are duplicated and stored in the distributed
ledger. A distributed ledger can be called as the backbone of a blockchain.
Q:What is DApp ?
DApps are the Distributed application working on a peer to peer network.there won’t
be any central server for these DApps.Bitcoin is the first DApp. In DApps we use
a distributed digital ledger for controlling transactions without any intermediary.
Q:What is blockchain wallet ?
A Wallet is a cryptocurrency replacement for our bank accounts. It allows you to
send and receive cryptocurrencies through your browser or mobile phone. All cryptocurrency
transactions can be managed with the wallet.
Q:Who is a blockchain miner ?
A blockchain miner is an entity which validates the transactions taken place in
a blockchain . Generally, a miner is a mining software with a set of hash functions
for validating the transactions. The software validates a transaction by solving
a complex mathematical problem associated with the transaction and update them in
the distributed ledger. The mining software can be installed on any PC or you can
buy a dedicated mining machine. There is a number of mining machines available in
the market, anyone can buy it and can start mining.
Q:What is tokens in blockchain ?
The token is a digital asset that can be transferred between two parties over the
internet without requiring the consent of any other party. In blockchain, the digital
asset transaction between two parties is taken place in the form of token.
Q:Which are top 5 blockchain platforms
Q:What is cryptocurrency ?
Cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency with a cryptographic security. It
allows people to perform financial transactions without an intermediary system.
A transaction of cryptocurrency from one participant to another must be validated
by the Minors before it is added to the ledger.
Some of the most common cryptocurrencies are;
Bitcoin: Bitcoin was the first and is the most commonly traded cryptocurrency
Ether: Developed in 2015, Ether is the currency token used in the Ethereum
blockchain, the second most popular and valuable cryptocurrency.
Ripple: Ripple is used both as a cryptocurrency and open payment network
for currency transfer.
Litecoin: This currency is similar in form to bitcoin. but it supports faster
payments and processes to allow many more transaction
Q:What are addresses on blockchain ?
Blockchain addresses play a vital role in blockchain and cryptocurrencies. All the
transactions in a blockchain are referenced by a blockchain address. The address
is created from the public key and private key by using a hash function.
Q:What is blockchain validation ?
Validation is the most important task in a blockchain.The transaction in a blockchain
must be validated before it is added to the immutable ledger. In blockchain, the
mining process is the validation process.Whenever a transaction is occurred in the
blockchain that must be validated by someone ,mostly a miner.
Q:What is public and private key in blockchain
The public and private key pair are two important elements in cryptography. Generally,
they are two mathematically related random numbers kept by users for the cryptographic
purpose. While the public key will be visible to everyone in the network private
key remains confidential to the owner. Anything encrypted with a public key is only
decryptable with corresponding private key and vice versa.
Q:What is proof-of-work scheme ?
Proof of Work (PoW), as the name indicates it is a method which ensures a proof
of a work done. In the case of the blockchain, a validation is required for all
the transactions. The PoW scheme is used here to validate the transactions. In PoW
scheme, whenever a miner validates a transaction a reward will be given to the miner
as a proof of work
Q:What is byzantine fault tolerance in
The Byzantine fault tolerance or BFT is used in blockchain to represents the characteristic
of a system that tolerates a class of failures.
The name Byzantine is taken from a classical problem known as “Byzantine Generals
Problem”, which is a problem of general agreement. A group of officers in Byzantine
army decided to attack a city, but they were unable to reach a consensus among them.
Some of the officers decided to attack the city and some of them to retreat. In
such a situation, to make a consensus, they made a consensus mechanism. A group
will agree with other and whatever failure happens due to the decision the team
will tolerate it.
The same principle is used in the case of blockchains also. There are several nodes
with equal priority. But for the validation purpose if one of them makes a decision
all other nodes will accept this with a character of Byzantine fault tolerance.
Q:What is consensus in blockchain ?
Since blockchain adopts a distributed ledger environment, a general agreement is
necessary for any modification of this ledger. Even after a miner validated a transaction,
a majority of the validators must agree on the same to accept it as a valid transaction.
This approach is known as consensus in the blockchain.
Q:What is blockchain API ?
Blockchain APIs provides a better way to connect and explore the data as well as
transactions in the blockchain for an external application.
Blockchain APIs are most popular among FinTech applications. The main advantage
of Blockchain APIs is that it is possible to avail the blockchain services to an
external application easily.
Even a non-Blockchain expert can simply use it and make the application a blockchain
for example, Coinbase API provides services in Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ether
Q:Bitcoin Vs blockchain ?
The blockchain is a peer to peer networking technology which uses a shared ledger
for managing all the transactions in the block chain.
whereas bitcoin is just a cryptocurrency based on blockchain technology. That is
the blockchain is the underlying technology behind bitcoin.
Q:How to use blockchain technology ?
It purely depends upon the needs and use-cases. So far, many key areas are identified
where blockchain can bring tremendous change. some of them are banking and finance
sector, enterprise applications, normal applications, IoT etc. More and more areas
are coming under its ambit as it grows.
Q:Who Administers a blockchain ?
The blockchain is a peer to peer network where a centralized administration is not
required. All the participants in the network will have the same priority. But in
the blockchain, there is a group called miners who verify the transactions in the
network. They perform verification only, a network majority is still required to
add the transactions to blocks.
Q:Can we connect a blockchain without node
To access a particular blockchain network you don't need to become a node of the
network. It is not mandatory. Several bridging software is available to connect
to the blockchain network.
An example is metamask.which is a browser add-on to connect to the Ethereum blockchain
Q:How does blockchain support business
There are many business use cases where a blockchain technology is applicable. some
of them are
Smart Contracts:- Smart contracts are the terms and agreements written in
lines of code. All the contracts in a business can be handled using blockchain.
Supply-Chain Communications:- The best method for supply chain tracking is
blockchain. From development to the end user, the organization can track the product
Paying Employees:- Payment can be made through the cryptocurrencies. With
blockchain, it is easy to introduce and manage safe cryptocurrencies.
Identity Management:- Blockchain can be used for creating digital IDs for
the users. This id can be used anywhere as an identity proof. Since blockchain is
distributed the authentication of these IDs will be much faster and secure than
other identity management systems.
Q:Where we can use blockchain ?
In the current situation, it’s an irrelevant question because blockchain has started
implementing in everywhere. the blockchain is termed as the future internet, that
means the entire world can be connected using blockchain..
trading:- Tracking of the traded items can be simplified using blockchain
file storage:- Storing files in a single server is somewhat risky. sharing
the files in the distributed system using blockchain is the future
Identity management:-We can create a worldwide useable identity using blockchain,
eg: onename(blockchain App)
medical records management:- Transferring patient records whenever needed
is a somewhat difficult task now. With blockchain apps, we can distribute all the
records throughout the network and access whenever it is needed.
Banking:- decentralized systems and distributed ledgers can provide more
security and better management facility for banking and financial organization These
are just an introduction to the uses of the blockchain. More and more areas are
coming under its ambit as it grows
Q:What is transaction fees, gas limit,
gas unit in Ethereum ?
The transaction cost is the cost required for executing the computational steps
in a transaction. The transaction cost can be calculated using the equation;
Transaction cost = Gas unit * Gas price.
The gas units are the basic units of a transaction in a Blockchain
The gas limits:-Maximum number of gas units that can consist in a transaction.
Q:What is a blockchain transaction ?
Transaction is a fundamental element in blockchain. Every change in blockchain is
regarded as a transaction. Any transactions between two parties will be recorded
in the shared distributed ledger.
Q:What are the consensus protocols used
in blockchain ?
Proof of stake
Proof of activity
Proof of burn
Proof of capacity
Proof of elapsed time
Q:Which operating systems supports blockchain
Blockchains doesn't have any operating system restrictions. Both development and
usage of blockchains are supported by all major operating systems.
Q:What are smart-contracts ?
Smart contracts are the terms and agreements between the persons involved in an
agreement, written in lines of code. Smart contracts are auto-executed according
to the agreement written in code. Smart contracts in blockchain are visible to all
users of the blockchain. Hence it provides a transparent, secure and conflict-free
environment without any middlemen.
Q:Advantages of blockchain ?
Q:How we can mine a bitcoin?
Mining is a process of adding new blocks to the bitcoin blockchain. In bitcoin blockchain
miners are rewarded with bitcoins. For more details:
Hashing technology in blockchain
Q:What is a mining pool ?
A mining pool is a group of miners who share their computing power and resources
to mine the cryptocurrencies. They split the rewards according to work done by each
Q:What is EVM ?
Ethereum Virtual Machine.The EVM provides a runtime environment for the contracts.
EVM will execute all the untrusted codes and can provide security by restricting
the accessing of each other's state.
Q:What is BaaS ?
Blockchain as a Service (BaaS) is a service-oriented platform which reduces the
complexity of creating a blockchain network. By BaaS one can create and manage blockchain
just by few clicks For more details:
Blockchain as a Service (BaaS)
Q:What are some examples for BaaS ?
Ethereum BaaS on Microsoft Azure
IBM Blockchain on Bluemix
Q:What are the different hashing algorithms
used in Blockchain ?
There are many hashing algorithms used in the blockchain. Commonly used two algorithms
SHA-256 : Which produces a 256-bit hash, used in bitcoin blockchain
KECCAK-256 : Produces a 256-bit hash, used in ethereum blockchain
Q:What is the Difference between smart
contract and Traditional contract?
Smart contracts are written in lines of codes and they are often self-executable.
It doesn't need an intermediate to enforce the contract. And traditional contracts
are written on paper and often implemented by a third party. For more details visit
What are Smart
Q:What is Hash rate ?
Hash rate is used for measuring the processing power of a blockchain. Hash rate
is the number of hash function that a mining machine can compute per second.
Q:What is nonce ?
The nonce is an arbitrary string which is used in hashing. In bitcoin blockchain
when a new block arrives, data in the blocks are hashed first. Then this hashed
data is added with a nonce which is hashed again. The resulting hash is tested for
a certain difficulty level. If it doesn’t meet the requirement the nonce is changed
and the step is repeated till it meets the requirement.
Q:Is Blockchain secure ?
The robust security is the prime feature of Blockchain. The distributed nature of
ledger provides it immunity against data loss. The data in ledgers are stored in
encrypted format and it is another level of security in the blockchain. Furthermore,
data modification without the knowledge of network participant is impossible and
it is called immutable ledger.
Q:How blockchain helps Supply chain management
Supply chain is an opportune place for blockchain technology. Coupled with IoT blockchain
can facilitate tracking of an object from development till the end user. Each and
every movement, as well as the condition of a product, can be recorded in the blockchain
with IoT sensors. The same data can make available end users if needed. The blockchain
can revolutionize the supply chain by providing better transparency, accountability
and feedback mechanism along the supply chain.
Q:Is it possible to write smart contract
on bitcoin blockchain ?
Yes, we can write smart contracts on bitcoin blockchain using RSK. RSK is an open
source smart contract platform which allows development and implementation of smart
contracts over bitcoin blockchain. RSK exist as a sidechain of Bitcoin blockchain
and allows the developers to write smart contract codes on bitcoin blockchain.
Q:What is a 2 way-peg ?
2 way-peg is a method to transfer cryptocurrencies between a mainchain and its sidechain.
The 2-way peg between RSK and Bitcoin facilitate the currency transaction between
RSK and Bitcoin network. When a user tries to convert Bitcoin to Side chain bitcoin,
the amount will be locked in bitcoin blockchain and the same amount is released
in sidechain. The reverse process is carried out when a user try to transact Side
chain BTC to main BTC.
Q:What is merkle tree ?
Merkle tree or hash tree is a tree in which each node is a hash of its child node
except the leaf node. The leaf node will be a data block. Merkle tree is mostly
used for verifying and securely transmitting data stored in a computer to other
computers in the network .
Q:How much bitcoin exists in the bitcoin
The number of bitcoins that can be mined is 21 million. After every 2,10,000 block,
the reward for adding a new block will be halved.
Q:What are the programming languages used
to write smart contracts ?
There are many programming languages used to write smart contracts. Some of them
Solidity - Which has .sol extension.
Serpent - Based on python and has .se extension
LLL - Based on Lisp
Q:Is blockchain hashing is collision resistant?
Collision is a situation where the hashes of two inputs become identical. In hashing,
for any two input A and B, the hash of A, H(A) and the hash of B, H(B) should not
be equal.Suppose we have a 128-bit hash, which has 2^128 different possibilities.
Then we have 50% chance to have collision on the square root of 2^128, that is on
the 2^64th instance, which is quite long.
Q:What are the data structures used in
There are mainly two data structures used in Blockchain, Pointers, and Linked lists.
We know pointers are variables that store the address of the other variables. In
Blockchain, more than the address the pointers also store the hash value of the
Blockchain is basically a Linked list in which each node stores a hash pointer and
a data header. While the data header will store the data of that block the pointer
will have the address of the preceding block as well as the hash value.
Q:What is the average time interval between
the addition of new block to the bitcoin blockchain ?
In a bitcoin network, an average of 10 minutes is taken to add a new block.
Q:What is solidity?
Solidity is a high-level programming language, which is designed to work with the
technology of the time -Blockchain. More specifically speaking, Solidity is designed
to develop Smart Contracts in Ethereum Blockchain platform. Read more:
What is solidity
Q:How does the nodes in hyperledger fabric
network communicate each other?
The nodes in hyperledger fabric https://www.blockchainexpert.uk/blog/what-is-solidity
network communicate with each other using grpc protocol.
Q:What is an ordering service?
Ordering service or Orderer is a node that runs the communication service in the
hyperledger fabric. The communication service provides a shared communication channel
to clients and peers. The client can connect to a single or multiple communication
channels and communicate with other clients or peers.
Q:What is coco?
Coco (Confidential Consortium) is an open source blockchain framework designed by
Microsoft. Microsoft announced the ‘Coco’ in August 2017 in their whitepaper ‘Coco
Framework Technical Overview’. The source code of the Coco framework is planned
to publish in github by 2018. Coco is not just a standalone blockchain protocol
like Bitcoin or Ethereum rather it provides a platform for building trusted networks
using any of the existing protocols. Read more:
What is Coco blockchain framework
Q:Why coco is important?
The blockchain technology is in an infant state. The existing system has several
problems like low transaction throughput, high latency, lack of confidentiality,
lack of effective governance, low computational efficiency etc. which makes this
technology still in its ‘yet to discover’ state for enterprises. Even though many
attempts are ongoing to overcome these problems, the complete solution is still
unattainable. Because most of the solutions are either focused on a particular business
domain or it comes with a cost in some other property. On the other hand, coco being
a framework which provides a secure environment for running any existing blockchain
platforms, it becomes a complete solution for enterprise use-cases.
Q:Why Go is used in blockchain projects?
Go is a C like programming language from Google. Besides the language features and
specifications, there are some other reasons which made go as a fine choice among
1. Since most of the Blockchain projects are open source, the readability and writability
of a code is a prime factor, which will encourage newcomers to learn an existing
code and make their own contribution. And Go is one of the best candidate among
2. Go is very stable in between its version releases. That is, the language specifications
aren’t changed much as new versions are released. This makes go a suitable choice
for futuristic technology like blockchain.
3. Above all, Google designed Go. They did it for their highly scalable systems.
Which means the language is capable of handling such systems, and it became an apt
choice for handling the Blockchain platforms Read more:
The Go programming language
Q:What is embark?
Embark is a framework used for developing and deploying DApps (Decentralized Apps)
using one or more decentralized technologies. The tools and functionalities provided
by the Embark make the DApp development process easy and productive. It reduces
the interaction between the front end of application and smart contract so that
the application can run faster on the network. The technology uses IPFS protocol
to store and manage files across the decentralized network. ‘Whisper’ and ‘Orbit’
communication platforms streamline the communication process in Embark. The platform
performs automatic deployment of smart contract and ensures the redeployment if
the contract has undergone any changes.
Q:Is hyperledger and fabric are same?
Not actually. Hyperledger is not a technology, it's a project name of Linux foundation
like Linux OS project. According to them, “Hyperledger is an open source collaborative
effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies”. Rather than declaring
a single blockchain standard, the Linux foundation chose a collaborative approach
to develop blockchain technologies via community process. The project began accepting
the proposals for incubating codebases from different vendors in early 2016. Thus
a number of different business blockchain frameworks and tools were accepted under
this project. They are collectively known as ‘hyperledger umbrella’. The fabric
is one among those, along with sawtooth, Iroha, cello etc. It was initially contributed
by Digital Asset and IBM. Fabric is the first to get accepted to the project and
also the first to get released as production ready codebase after 1 year of incubation.
When people using the term ‘hyperledger’, they are actually meaning one of the technologies
under hyperledger umbrella.
Q:How to install hyperledger?
As mentioned in the previous answer, the hyperledger is a project name. There are
several protocols under this project. If you are intending to download hyperledger,
you are actually going to download one of that platforms. The list of platforms
under hyperledger project and links containing its installation instruction are
Hyperledger Iroha -
Hyperledger Sawtooth -
Q:How to install coco?
The software giant Microsoft announced about their new blockchain framework coco
in August 2017. As of now, coco is unavailable for download. The source code of
the Coco framework is planned to publish in GitHub by 2018. Stay tuned to their
git page : https://github.com/Azure/coco-framework
Q:What are the programming languages used
to write smart contracts ?
The most commonly used languages in different platforms are:
Ultimately it depends on which platform you are using to create DApps. If you are
trying with Ethereum, you should definitely have some basic understanding of solidity.
The smart contract in Ethereum is written in solidity. Read more about solidity
here : What is solidity
If you are working with any of the hyperledger protocols, you will get a plenty
of choices. Among which, 'Go' and Serpent is leading figures. 'Go' is a c-like language
designed by Google . Read more about go here :
The Go programming language
A built in blockchain package is readily available in python, for blockchain development.
Python packages for blockchain
Q:Is it possible to create smart contracts
using solidity in all platforms of blockchain?
Absolutely No. Solidity is a high-level language for Smart contract creation, however,
it is platform specific. Solidity is developed as a part of Ethereum project for
the creation of smart contract in Ethereum platform only.
Q:Why solidity become most prefered language
for ethereum platform?
Since Solidity is made purely for Smart contract creation. It is simple and has
no other dependencies or complexities like other normal programming languages. Moreover,
a popular choice.
Q:Which is the easy way to run solidity
programs for testing purpose?
If you are a beginner in blockchain as well as in Ethereum and solidity. The best
way to test the program is using Remix. Remix is an online IDE for running solidity
program on Ethereum platform.
There are also offline extensions are available for various IDEs but the installation
little bit complex and time-consuming. So the better way is Remix.
Q:What is a testnet?
Testnet is a test network for the blockchain enthusiasts to test their blockchain
apps.Several testnet networks are available for bitcoin, Ethereum, and any other
for example, there is a bitcoin testnet is available for testing bitcoin transactions.
The bitcoins used in the test network doesn't have any value. They are used by the
application developers for the testing the bitcoin transactions in their application.There
is test network available for testing smart contracts also, like TestRPC.
Q:Is there is any payment required to use
ethereum ?if yes,on what basis?
Definitely yes. But if you use Ethereum network for testing purpose, then you don’t
need to pay. Payment is needed only for production purpose. The payment is on the
basis of the source code of smart-contract. How many lines of code and how much
gas is needed for execution etc. are considered while fixing the payment.
Q:What are the programming languages used
to write smart contracts ?
There are many digital currency exchanges available today to convert your normal
currency to Ether .some of the best cryptocurrency exchanges provide ether are:-
Q:Where I can manage my ether?
Cryptocurrencies are managed through digital wallets. Mist wallet is the official
wallet of Ethereum. For more information about mist see our blog
Q:Is blockchain is hack proof?
Definitely. Since the blockchain is decentralized, people are often confused with
the data confidentiality.
But the Completely encrypted nature of the transaction will not allow visibility
to any third party. And any transaction is validated with the permission of every
one of the chain so data manipulation is also not possible. The lack of centralized
control reduces the risk of data copying by the hosting authority.
Q:How I can ensure my personal data is
secure in blockchain since it is distributed?
Definitely. Since the blockchain is decentralized, people are often confused with
the data confidentiality. But the Completely encrypted nature of the transaction
will not allow visibility to any third party. And any transaction is validated with
the permission of every one of the chain so data manipulation is also not possible.
The lack of centralized control reduces the risk of data copying by the hosting
Q:What is hyperledger cello?Is it is a
platform for development?
The answer is No. Hyperledger Cello is a tool for managing Blockchain as a service(BaaS).
It is one of the many tools unveiled by Hyperledger project. Cello is a User-friendly
tool with a web interface to manage blockchain services including creating, managing
and terminating blockchain services.
Q:How can I access blockchain based services
for my applications?
If you are an app developer and wish to access blockchain services for your application
then the right solution is to use blockchain APIs. Several Blockchain API providers
are available today and you can choose according to your need.
Q:Is cryptocurrencies are legal?
Yes and No. As of now most of the countries accept cryptocurrencies. There is no
explicit ban on it. But many countries are going to make legal frameworks on it.
Q:What are the advantages of using cryptocurrencies
among traditional currencies?
Q:Can I make bitcoins payments in my e-commerce
Yes. you can implement the digital currency payment in your e-commerce website very
easily. There are many APIs available to implement this. If you are not a blockchain
chain developer you can contact us here for any help.
Q:What is the main advantage of changing
from a traditional client server system to Peer to Peer network?
Blockchain based P2P network has many advantages over the traditional client-server
Faster Transaction rate
No one can read or access your data.
Data never stolen
No issue of server down etc.
Many more you can read out more atTop
12 Benefits of the Blockchain
Q:Where can I exchange my currencies to
There are many online cryptocurrency exchanges who provide exchange services for
many existing cryptocurrencies. You can choose according to your digital currency
and location. Some of the exchanges are listed below.
India - Coinsecure, Zebpay
. UK - Bittylicious, CoinCorner, Coinfloor
UAE - BitOasis
US - Gemini, itBit
Q:What is decentralization?
Decentralisation is the process of distributing the digital assets and ledgers on
the client itself without the help of a server or centralized authority.
The permission to read and write on these ledgers are based on a smart contract
which is held by every client in the network.
Any operation done by any client on this network is called as a transaction. A transaction
needs validation by other clients in the network to approve the transaction.
The decentralisation is otherwise known as Peer to Peer technology.
Q:What is the advantage of chain core over
other blockchain platforms?
Chain core is a blockchain platform developed by Chain Inc. and it mainly focused
on financial applications. They implement some advanced features, like HSM(Hardware
Security Module), Multiple Security Key, Federation of Signers etc on existing Blockchain
network. These features provide better security for standards for chain core than
other blockchain networks.
Q:How IoT is related to blockchain?
Blockchain will provide a decentralized approach to the IoT networks. IoT will manage
the physical entities through the internet.In their combined implementation each
object can be recorded in the blockchain and their entire transactions can be tracked
with the help of IoT sensors.For more details: IOTA - Next Generation Blockchain Technology
Q:Is there any software available to manage
Many tools are available for managing blockchain easily. If you are providing blockchain
services based on hyperledger, Then you can use Hyperledger Cello. It is a master
tool for managing the blockchain network. Many platform-specific tools are also
available for managing different blockchain networks.