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The blockchain is a technology where the traditional client-server system is fully changed to a decentralized peer to peer system. Where the data and transactions are stored in a shared ledger in an encrypted format. A blockchain is a collection of linked records growing continuously and the copy of all the records will be stored in all the nodes in the network. for more details: What is Blockchain Technology

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A blockchain is a collection of blocks where each block will record the transactions in the network. Without the support of a centralized server, the entire blockchain can manage a business use case with the help of a distributed shared ledger. What is Blockchain Technology

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The blockchain mining is used for the validation of transactions taken place in a blockchain network. The actual process in mining is the permanent recording of transactions to the distributed ledger of the particular blockchain. Once the transaction is validated by miners with the help of a validation algorithm it is recorded in the ledger and copied to all the nodes in the blockchain. For more details:- Hashing technology in blockchain

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A distributed ledger is a shared digital data stored in all the nodes of a blockchain. All the transactions in the blockchain are duplicated and stored in the distributed ledger. A distributed ledger can be called as the backbone of a blockchain.

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DApps are the Distributed application working on a peer to peer network.there won’t be any central server for these DApps.Bitcoin is the first DApp. In DApps we use a distributed digital ledger for controlling transactions without any intermediary.

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A Wallet is a cryptocurrency replacement for our bank accounts. It allows you to send and receive cryptocurrencies through your browser or mobile phone. All cryptocurrency transactions can be managed with the wallet.

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A blockchain miner is an entity which validates the transactions taken place in a blockchain . Generally, a miner is a mining software with a set of hash functions for validating the transactions. The software validates a transaction by solving a complex mathematical problem associated with the transaction and update them in the distributed ledger. The mining software can be installed on any PC or you can buy a dedicated mining machine. There is a number of mining machines available in the market, anyone can buy it and can start mining.

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The token is a digital asset that can be transferred between two parties over the internet without requiring the consent of any other party. In blockchain, the digital asset transaction between two parties is taken place in the form of token.

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Cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency with a cryptographic security. It allows people to perform financial transactions without an intermediary system. A transaction of cryptocurrency from one participant to another must be validated by the Minors before it is added to the ledger.

Some of the most common cryptocurrencies are;

Bitcoin: Bitcoin was the first and is the most commonly traded cryptocurrency to date.

Ether: Developed in 2015, Ether is the currency token used in the Ethereum blockchain, the second most popular and valuable cryptocurrency.

Ripple: Ripple is used both as a cryptocurrency and open payment network for currency transfer.

Litecoin: This currency is similar in form to bitcoin. but it supports faster payments and processes to allow many more transaction

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Blockchain addresses play a vital role in blockchain and cryptocurrencies. All the transactions in a blockchain are referenced by a blockchain address. The address is created from the public key and private key by using a hash function.

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Validation is the most important task in a blockchain.The transaction in a blockchain must be validated before it is added to the immutable ledger. In blockchain, the mining process is the validation process.Whenever a transaction is occurred in the blockchain that must be validated by someone ,mostly a miner.

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The public and private key pair are two important elements in cryptography. Generally, they are two mathematically related random numbers kept by users for the cryptographic purpose. While the public key will be visible to everyone in the network private key remains confidential to the owner. Anything encrypted with a public key is only decryptable with corresponding private key and vice versa.

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Proof of Work (PoW), as the name indicates it is a method which ensures a proof of a work done. In the case of the blockchain, a validation is required for all the transactions. The PoW scheme is used here to validate the transactions. In PoW scheme, whenever a miner validates a transaction a reward will be given to the miner as a proof of work

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The Byzantine fault tolerance or BFT is used in blockchain to represents the characteristic of a system that tolerates a class of failures.

The name Byzantine is taken from a classical problem known as “Byzantine Generals Problem”, which is a problem of general agreement. A group of officers in Byzantine army decided to attack a city, but they were unable to reach a consensus among them. Some of the officers decided to attack the city and some of them to retreat. In such a situation, to make a consensus, they made a consensus mechanism. A group will agree with other and whatever failure happens due to the decision the team will tolerate it.

The same principle is used in the case of blockchains also. There are several nodes with equal priority. But for the validation purpose if one of them makes a decision all other nodes will accept this with a character of Byzantine fault tolerance.

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Since blockchain adopts a distributed ledger environment, a general agreement is necessary for any modification of this ledger. Even after a miner validated a transaction, a majority of the validators must agree on the same to accept it as a valid transaction. This approach is known as consensus in the blockchain.

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Blockchain APIs provides a better way to connect and explore the data as well as transactions in the blockchain for an external application.

Blockchain APIs are most popular among FinTech applications. The main advantage of Blockchain APIs is that it is possible to avail the blockchain services to an external application easily.

Even a non-Blockchain expert can simply use it and make the application a blockchain rich .

for example, Coinbase API provides services in Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ether

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The blockchain is a peer to peer networking technology which uses a shared ledger for managing all the transactions in the block chain.

whereas bitcoin is just a cryptocurrency based on blockchain technology. That is the blockchain is the underlying technology behind bitcoin.

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It purely depends upon the needs and use-cases. So far, many key areas are identified where blockchain can bring tremendous change. some of them are banking and finance sector, enterprise applications, normal applications, IoT etc. More and more areas are coming under its ambit as it grows.

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The blockchain is a peer to peer network where a centralized administration is not required. All the participants in the network will have the same priority. But in the blockchain, there is a group called miners who verify the transactions in the network. They perform verification only, a network majority is still required to add the transactions to blocks.

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To access a particular blockchain network you don't need to become a node of the network. It is not mandatory. Several bridging software is available to connect to the blockchain network.

An example is metamask.which is a browser add-on to connect to the Ethereum blockchain

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There are many business use cases where a blockchain technology is applicable. some of them are

Smart Contracts:- Smart contracts are the terms and agreements written in lines of code. All the contracts in a business can be handled using blockchain.

Supply-Chain Communications:- The best method for supply chain tracking is blockchain. From development to the end user, the organization can track the product with blockchain.

Paying Employees:- Payment can be made through the cryptocurrencies. With blockchain, it is easy to introduce and manage safe cryptocurrencies.

Identity Management:- Blockchain can be used for creating digital IDs for the users. This id can be used anywhere as an identity proof. Since blockchain is distributed the authentication of these IDs will be much faster and secure than other identity management systems.

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In the current situation, it’s an irrelevant question because blockchain has started implementing in everywhere. the blockchain is termed as the future internet, that means the entire world can be connected using blockchain..

trading:- Tracking of the traded items can be simplified using blockchain apps

file storage:- Storing files in a single server is somewhat risky. sharing the files in the distributed system using blockchain is the future

Identity management:-We can create a worldwide useable identity using blockchain, eg: onename(blockchain App)

medical records management:- Transferring patient records whenever needed is a somewhat difficult task now. With blockchain apps, we can distribute all the records throughout the network and access whenever it is needed.

Banking:- decentralized systems and distributed ledgers can provide more security and better management facility for banking and financial organization These are just an introduction to the uses of the blockchain. More and more areas are coming under its ambit as it grows

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The transaction cost is the cost required for executing the computational steps in a transaction. The transaction cost can be calculated using the equation;

Transaction cost = Gas unit * Gas price.

The gas units are the basic units of a transaction in a Blockchain

The gas limits:-Maximum number of gas units that can consist in a transaction.

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Transaction is a fundamental element in blockchain. Every change in blockchain is regarded as a transaction. Any transactions between two parties will be recorded in the shared distributed ledger.

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Proof of stake
Proof of activity
Proof of burn
Proof of capacity
Proof of elapsed time

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Blockchains doesn't have any operating system restrictions. Both development and usage of blockchains are supported by all major operating systems.

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Smart contracts are the terms and agreements between the persons involved in an agreement, written in lines of code. Smart contracts are auto-executed according to the agreement written in code. Smart contracts in blockchain are visible to all users of the blockchain. Hence it provides a transparent, secure and conflict-free environment without any middlemen.

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you can read a detailed writing about the advantages of blockchain here, Top 12 benefits of the blockchain

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Mining is a process of adding new blocks to the bitcoin blockchain. In bitcoin blockchain miners are rewarded with bitcoins. For more details: Hashing technology in blockchain

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A mining pool is a group of miners who share their computing power and resources to mine the cryptocurrencies. They split the rewards according to work done by each miner.

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Ethereum Virtual Machine.The EVM provides a runtime environment for the contracts. EVM will execute all the untrusted codes and can provide security by restricting the accessing of each other's state.

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Blockchain as a Service (BaaS) is a service-oriented platform which reduces the complexity of creating a blockchain network. By BaaS one can create and manage blockchain just by few clicks For more details: Blockchain as a Service (BaaS)

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Ethereum BaaS on Microsoft Azure
Rubix Deloitte
IBM Blockchain on Bluemix

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There are many hashing algorithms used in the blockchain. Commonly used two algorithms are;
SHA-256 : Which produces a 256-bit hash, used in bitcoin blockchain
KECCAK-256 : Produces a 256-bit hash, used in ethereum blockchain

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Smart contracts are written in lines of codes and they are often self-executable. It doesn't need an intermediate to enforce the contract. And traditional contracts are written on paper and often implemented by a third party. For more details visit What are Smart contracts

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Hash rate is used for measuring the processing power of a blockchain. Hash rate is the number of hash function that a mining machine can compute per second.

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The nonce is an arbitrary string which is used in hashing. In bitcoin blockchain when a new block arrives, data in the blocks are hashed first. Then this hashed data is added with a nonce which is hashed again. The resulting hash is tested for a certain difficulty level. If it doesn’t meet the requirement the nonce is changed and the step is repeated till it meets the requirement.

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The robust security is the prime feature of Blockchain. The distributed nature of ledger provides it immunity against data loss. The data in ledgers are stored in encrypted format and it is another level of security in the blockchain. Furthermore, data modification without the knowledge of network participant is impossible and it is called immutable ledger.

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Supply chain is an opportune place for blockchain technology. Coupled with IoT blockchain can facilitate tracking of an object from development till the end user. Each and every movement, as well as the condition of a product, can be recorded in the blockchain with IoT sensors. The same data can make available end users if needed. The blockchain can revolutionize the supply chain by providing better transparency, accountability and feedback mechanism along the supply chain.

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Yes, we can write smart contracts on bitcoin blockchain using RSK. RSK is an open source smart contract platform which allows development and implementation of smart contracts over bitcoin blockchain. RSK exist as a sidechain of Bitcoin blockchain and allows the developers to write smart contract codes on bitcoin blockchain.

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2 way-peg is a method to transfer cryptocurrencies between a mainchain and its sidechain. The 2-way peg between RSK and Bitcoin facilitate the currency transaction between RSK and Bitcoin network. When a user tries to convert Bitcoin to Side chain bitcoin, the amount will be locked in bitcoin blockchain and the same amount is released in sidechain. The reverse process is carried out when a user try to transact Side chain BTC to main BTC.

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Merkle tree or hash tree is a tree in which each node is a hash of its child node except the leaf node. The leaf node will be a data block. Merkle tree is mostly used for verifying and securely transmitting data stored in a computer to other computers in the network .

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The number of bitcoins that can be mined is 21 million. After every 2,10,000 block, the reward for adding a new block will be halved.

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There are many programming languages used to write smart contracts. Some of them are..
Solidity - Which has .sol extension.
Serpent - Based on python and has .se extension
LLL - Based on Lisp

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Collision is a situation where the hashes of two inputs become identical. In hashing, for any two input A and B, the hash of A, H(A) and the hash of B, H(B) should not be equal.Suppose we have a 128-bit hash, which has 2^128 different possibilities. Then we have 50% chance to have collision on the square root of 2^128, that is on the 2^64th instance, which is quite long.

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There are mainly two data structures used in Blockchain, Pointers, and Linked lists. We know pointers are variables that store the address of the other variables. In Blockchain, more than the address the pointers also store the hash value of the previous block.

Blockchain is basically a Linked list in which each node stores a hash pointer and a data header. While the data header will store the data of that block the pointer will have the address of the preceding block as well as the hash value.

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In a bitcoin network, an average of 10 minutes is taken to add a new block.

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Solidity is a high-level programming language, which is designed to work with the technology of the time -Blockchain. More specifically speaking, Solidity is designed to develop Smart Contracts in Ethereum Blockchain platform. Read more: What is solidity

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The nodes in hyperledger fabric http://www.blockchainexpert.uk/blog/what-is-solidityc network communicate with each other using grpc protocol.

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Ordering service or Orderer is a node that runs the communication service in the hyperledger fabric. The communication service provides a shared communication channel to clients and peers. The client can connect to a single or multiple communication channels and communicate with other clients or peers.

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Coco (Confidential Consortium) is an open source blockchain framework designed by Microsoft. Microsoft announced the ‘Coco’ in August 2017 in their whitepaper ‘Coco Framework Technical Overview’. The source code of the Coco framework is planned to publish in github by 2018. Coco is not just a standalone blockchain protocol like Bitcoin or Ethereum rather it provides a platform for building trusted networks using any of the existing protocols. Read more: What is Coco blockchain framework

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The blockchain technology is in an infant state. The existing system has several problems like low transaction throughput, high latency, lack of confidentiality, lack of effective governance, low computational efficiency etc. which makes this technology still in its ‘yet to discover’ state for enterprises. Even though many attempts are ongoing to overcome these problems, the complete solution is still unattainable. Because most of the solutions are either focused on a particular business domain or it comes with a cost in some other property. On the other hand, coco being a framework which provides a secure environment for running any existing blockchain platforms, it becomes a complete solution for enterprise use-cases.

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Go is a C like programming language from Google. Besides the language features and specifications, there are some other reasons which made go as a fine choice among blockchain geeks.

1. Since most of the Blockchain projects are open source, the readability and writability of a code is a prime factor, which will encourage newcomers to learn an existing code and make their own contribution. And Go is one of the best candidate among these.
2. Go is very stable in between its version releases. That is, the language specifications aren’t changed much as new versions are released. This makes go a suitable choice for futuristic technology like blockchain.
3. Above all, Google designed Go. They did it for their highly scalable systems. Which means the language is capable of handling such systems, and it became an apt choice for handling the Blockchain platforms Read more: The Go programming language

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Embark is a framework used for developing and deploying DApps (Decentralized Apps) using one or more decentralized technologies. The tools and functionalities provided by the Embark make the DApp development process easy and productive. It reduces the interaction between the front end of application and smart contract so that the application can run faster on the network. The technology uses IPFS protocol to store and manage files across the decentralized network. ‘Whisper’ and ‘Orbit’ communication platforms streamline the communication process in Embark. The platform performs automatic deployment of smart contract and ensures the redeployment if the contract has undergone any changes.

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Not actually. Hyperledger is not a technology, it's a project name of Linux foundation like Linux OS project. According to them, “Hyperledger is an open source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies”. Rather than declaring a single blockchain standard, the Linux foundation chose a collaborative approach to develop blockchain technologies via community process. The project began accepting the proposals for incubating codebases from different vendors in early 2016. Thus a number of different business blockchain frameworks and tools were accepted under this project. They are collectively known as ‘hyperledger umbrella’. The fabric is one among those, along with sawtooth, Iroha, cello etc. It was initially contributed by Digital Asset and IBM. Fabric is the first to get accepted to the project and also the first to get released as production ready codebase after 1 year of incubation.
When people using the term ‘hyperledger’, they are actually meaning one of the technologies under hyperledger umbrella.

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As mentioned in the previous answer, the hyperledger is a project name. There are several protocols under this project. If you are intending to download hyperledger, you are actually going to download one of that platforms. The list of platforms under hyperledger project and links containing its installation instruction are listed below.
Hyperledger fabric
Hyperledger Iroha -
Hyperledger Sawtooth -

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Have a look at this blog: What is embark dapp developement

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The software giant Microsoft announced about their new blockchain framework coco in August 2017. As of now, coco is unavailable for download. The source code of the Coco framework is planned to publish in GitHub by 2018. Stay tuned to their git page : https://github.com/Azure/coco-framework

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The most commonly used languages in different platforms are:
C++
Javascript
Python
Solidity
Go

Ultimately it depends on which platform you are using to create DApps. If you are trying with Ethereum, you should definitely have some basic understanding of solidity. The smart contract in Ethereum is written in solidity. Read more about solidity here : What is solidity

If you are working with any of the hyperledger protocols, you will get a plenty of choices. Among which, 'Go' and Serpent is leading figures. 'Go' is a c-like language designed by Google . Read more about go here : The Go programming language

A built in blockchain package is readily available in python, for blockchain development. Read more:- Python packages for blockchain

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Absolutely No. Solidity is a high-level language for Smart contract creation, however, it is platform specific. Solidity is developed as a part of Ethereum project for the creation of smart contract in Ethereum platform only.

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Since Solidity is made purely for Smart contract creation. It is simple and has no other dependencies or complexities like other normal programming languages. Moreover, it is similar to javascript and uses Object-oriented concepts. These make Solidiy a popular choice.

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If you are a beginner in blockchain as well as in Ethereum and solidity. The best way to test the program is using Remix. Remix is an online IDE for running solidity program on Ethereum platform.
There are also offline extensions are available for various IDEs but the installation little bit complex and time-consuming. So the better way is Remix.

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Testnet is a test network for the blockchain enthusiasts to test their blockchain apps.Several testnet networks are available for bitcoin, Ethereum, and any other cryptocurrencies.

for example, there is a bitcoin testnet is available for testing bitcoin transactions. The bitcoins used in the test network doesn't have any value. They are used by the application developers for the testing the bitcoin transactions in their application.There is test network available for testing smart contracts also, like TestRPC.

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Definitely yes. But if you use Ethereum network for testing purpose, then you don’t need to pay. Payment is needed only for production purpose. The payment is on the basis of the source code of smart-contract. How many lines of code and how much gas is needed for execution etc. are considered while fixing the payment.

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There are many digital currency exchanges available today to convert your normal currency to Ether .some of the best cryptocurrency exchanges provide ether are:-
coinbase
Kraken
ShapeShift
Poloniex

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Cryptocurrencies are managed through digital wallets. Mist wallet is the official wallet of Ethereum. For more information about mist see our blog Mist

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Definitely. Since the blockchain is decentralized, people are often confused with the data confidentiality.

But the Completely encrypted nature of the transaction will not allow visibility to any third party. And any transaction is validated with the permission of every one of the chain so data manipulation is also not possible. The lack of centralized control reduces the risk of data copying by the hosting authority.

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Definitely. Since the blockchain is decentralized, people are often confused with the data confidentiality. But the Completely encrypted nature of the transaction will not allow visibility to any third party. And any transaction is validated with the permission of every one of the chain so data manipulation is also not possible. The lack of centralized control reduces the risk of data copying by the hosting authority.

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The answer is No. Hyperledger Cello is a tool for managing Blockchain as a service(BaaS). It is one of the many tools unveiled by Hyperledger project. Cello is a User-friendly tool with a web interface to manage blockchain services including creating, managing and terminating blockchain services.

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If you are an app developer and wish to access blockchain services for your application then the right solution is to use blockchain APIs. Several Blockchain API providers are available today and you can choose according to your need.

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Yes and No. As of now most of the countries accept cryptocurrencies. There is no explicit ban on it. But many countries are going to make legal frameworks on it.

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You can read the advantage of cryptocurrency from here: What is Cryptocurrency: List of top 10 Cryptocurrencies

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Yes. you can implement the digital currency payment in your e-commerce website very easily. There are many APIs available to implement this. If you are not a blockchain chain developer you can contact us here for any help. Contact Us

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Blockchain based P2P network has many advantages over the traditional client-server model..
Data confidentiality
Faster Transaction rate
No one can read or access your data.
Data never stolen
No issue of server down etc.
Many more you can read out more atTop 12 Benefits of the Blockchain

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There are many online cryptocurrency exchanges who provide exchange services for many existing cryptocurrencies. You can choose according to your digital currency and location. Some of the exchanges are listed below.
India - Coinsecure, Zebpay
UK - Bittylicious, CoinCorner, Coinfloor
UAE - BitOasis
US - Gemini, itBit

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Decentralisation is the process of distributing the digital assets and ledgers on the client itself without the help of a server or centralized authority.
The permission to read and write on these ledgers are based on a smart contract which is held by every client in the network.
Any operation done by any client on this network is called as a transaction. A transaction needs validation by other clients in the network to approve the transaction.
The decentralisation is otherwise known as Peer to Peer technology.

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Chain core is a blockchain platform developed by Chain Inc. and it mainly focused on financial applications. They implement some advanced features, like HSM(Hardware Security Module), Multiple Security Key, Federation of Signers etc on existing Blockchain network. These features provide better security for standards for chain core than other blockchain networks.

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Blockchain will provide a decentralized approach to the IoT networks. IoT will manage the physical entities through the internet.In their combined implementation each object can be recorded in the blockchain and their entire transactions can be tracked with the help of IoT sensors. For more details: IOTA - Next Generation Blockchain Technology

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Many tools are available for managing blockchain easily. If you are providing blockchain services based on hyperledger, Then you can use Hyperledger Cello. It is a master tool for managing the blockchain network. Many platform-specific tools are also available for managing different blockchain networks.